Efficient Aggregate Computations in Large-Scale Dense Wireless Sensor Networks
Ref: HURRAY-TR-100905 Publication Date: 10, Sep, 2010
Efficient Aggregate Computations in Large-Scale Dense Wireless Sensor NetworksRef: HURRAY-TR-100905 Publication Date: 10, Sep, 2010
Assuming a world where we can be surrounded by hundreds or even thousands of inexpensive computing nodes densely deployed, each one with sensing and wireless communication capabilities, the problem of efficiently dealing with the enormous amount of information generated by those nodes emerges as a major challenge. The research in this dissertation addresses this challenge. This research work proves that it is possible to obtain aggregate quantities with a timecomplexity that is independent of the number of nodes, or grows very slowly as the number of nodes increases. This is achieved by co-designing the distributed algorithms for obtaining aggregate quantities and the underlying communication system. This work describes (i) the design and implementation of a prioritized medium access control (MAC) protocol which enforces strict priorities over wireless channels and (ii) the algorithms that allow exploiting this MAC protocol to obtain the minimum (MIN), maximum (MAX) and interpolation of sensor values with a time-complexity that is independent of the number of nodes deployed, whereas other state-of-the-art approaches have a time-complexity that is dependent on the number of nodes. These techniques also enable to efficiently obtain estimates of the number of nodes (COUNT) and the median of the sensor values (MEDIAN). The novel approach proposed to efficiently obtain aggregate quantities in large-scale, dense wireless sensor networks (WSN) is based on the adaptation to wireless media of a MAC protocol, known as dominance/binary countdown, which existed previously only for wired media, and design algorithms that exploit this MAC protocol for efficient data aggregation. Designing and implementing such MAC protocol for wireless media is not trivial. For this reason, a substantial part of this work is focused on the development and implementation of WiDom (short for Wireless Dominance) - a wireless MAC protocol that enables efficient data aggregation in large-scale, dense WSN. An implementation of WiDom is first proposed under the assumption of a fully connected network (a network with a single broadcast domain). This implementation can be exploited to efficiently obtain aggregated quantities. WiDom can also implement static priority scheduling over wireless media. Therefore, a schedulability analysis for WiDom is also proposed. WiDom is then extended to operate in sensor networks where a single transmission cannot reach all nodes, in a network with multiple broadcast domains. These results are significant because often networks of nodes that take sensor readings are designed to be large scale, dense networks and it is exactly for such scenarios that the proposed distributed algorithms for obtaining aggregate quantities excel. The implementation and test of these distributed algorithms in a hardware platform developed shows that aggregate quantities in large-scale, dense wireless sensor systems can be obtained efficientlly.
PhD Thesis, Universidade do Minho.